\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{amsmath} % AMS Math Package
\usepackage{amsthm} % Theorem Formatting
\usepackage{amssymb} % Math symbols such as \mathbb
\usepackage[hidelinks]{hyperref}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{caption}
\usepackage{filecontents}
\usepackage{subcaption}% Allows for eps images
\usepackage[table,xcdraw]{xcolor}
\usepackage{tikz}
\newcommand{\batman}{\batmanPic{0.05}}
\usepackage{siunitx}
\usepackage{tabularx} % Allows for table with custom column width
\usepackage{lipsum}
\usepackage{parskip}
\usepackage{booktabs}
%\usepackage{mathtools}
\usepackage[letterpaper, total={6.5in, 9in}]{geometry} % see geometry.pdf on how to lay out the page. There's lots.
\usepackage [english]{babel}
\usepackage [autostyle, english = american]{csquotes}
\usepackage{siunitx}
\usepackage{float}
\usepackage{array}
\usepackage{paralist}
\usepackage{setspace} % you can control the spacing here
\onehalfspacing
\setlength\parindent{24pt}
\MakeOuterQuote{"} % or letter or a5paper or ... etc
\usepackage{cite}% \geometry{landscape} % rotated page geometry
\usepackage{multicol} %allows you to make multiple columed items
\title{}
\author{}
\date{} % delete this line to display the current date
%%% BEGIN DOCUMENT
\begin{document}
\begin{titlepage}
\centering
\vspace*{0mm}
\Large{\textsc{Constraining the Density of Supersymmetric Cosmic Black Hole Mergers at Redshift z $\rightarrow \infty$ via Quantum Gravitational Statistical Lensing}}
\vspace{30mm}
\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\includegraphics[scale=0.125]{pton}
\end{figure}
\vspace{30mm}
\Large{\textsc{Carl Hubble-Hawking}}\\
\large{\textsc{Advised by Professor M. Freeman \& Dr. R. E. "Ted" Cruz}}\\
\vspace{8mm}
\large{\textsc{A Junior Paper \\ Submitted to the Department of Astrophysical Sciences \\ in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for\\the Degree of Bachelor of Arts}}
\large{\textsc{Princeton University \\Fall 2018\\}}
\end{titlepage}
\newpage
\pagenumbering{roman}
%\vspace*{\fill}
\section*{Abstract}
The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell.
\noindent
\vspace*{\fill}
\center{
\normalsize{This paper represents my work in accordance with University regulations.}\\
\normalsize{/s/ Hector Afonso Cruz}}
\newpage
\tableofcontents
\newpage
\pagenumbering{arabic}
\raggedright
\section{Introduction}
I'm 99.9\% sure you already know how to use a lot of LaTeX features, but to be honest when I started my JP I was completely terrified. I'd never written in LaTeX before. If you come across someone who is equally as terrified, maybe you can share this with them. Luckily LaTeX is fairly easy to get the hang of, and it's quite useful once it makes sense. I hope I can gather as many silly little tips and tricks here to make that learning process as smooth as possible.
The great thing about LaTeX is that it'll pretty much automatically make itself an outline for you, as long as you put your information in sections and subsections. You probably already know that white space doesn't really do anything in the code, so I'd recommend giving yourself space while you work.
% This, by the way, is how you comment things in LaTeX. Helloooooooooooo!
\section{Citing sources}
Whenever you cite something, you're going to want to use this format~\cite{reionization}. As far as I know, unlike a humanities paper, you don't have to cite a source nine million times. You'll have to double check with your advisor since every advisor has a different style, but I'm pretty sure citing a source once is enough~\cite{griffiths1999cosmic}.
Just make sure you don't make a typo and get the label for your reference wrong! You'll get a compiling error~\cite{schmitt2016design}. As you've probably picked up, by putting the tilde right after the place where you want the citation, it will give you a space automatically.
\subsection{Bibliography Examples}
You can check out the {\bf{main.bib}} file if you want examples of how to cite sources and a tip on citing those sources.
\section{Fancy fonts}
You can do a lot of stuff with fonts. I'll list them all here so you have quick and easy access to them.
\subsection{Italics, Bold, Underline}
You can \emph{italicize text}, {\bf{make it bold}}, or even \underline{underline it}! If you want to combine any of these effects, all you have to do is nest.
% I don't know why you need the extra brackets around the bold font. If you don't have it, everything becomes bold. Like you're constantly screaming. Not a great look.
Like {\bf{\emph{this super important phrase}}}, or \underline{\emph{this equally important phrase}}, or even {\bf{\emph{\underline{the most important phrase of all}}}} !!!!!
Okay maybe don't do that last one. It's horrifying.
\subsection{Sub and Super Script}
If you're doing anything that require super and subscripts, that's no issue either. If you're working with elements like \textsuperscript{3}He, dealing with the 3\textsuperscript{rd} day of June, finding the meaning of H\textsubscript{initial}, all you need is that format.
\subsection{Misc and Symbols}
Obviously I haven't put everything down here. If there's anything that you need and don't know how to type out, Google will be your best friend. A pretty glaring omission that you probably noticed is Greek letters. I'm going to include all (or most Greek letters) later, cause you need the math format to include them.
Some symbols that you'll want to use will be symbols that are commonly used in LaTeX code, like \$, \%, \textbackslash, and other important symbols. A lot of the time, putting these symbols in requires only a backslash and/or typing in their names with a backslash.
\section{Equations and Math}
Whenever you write out equations and mathematical relations, you're going to want to use the math format to do so. LaTeX is great for math, and there's lots of ways you can integrate physics and math into your paper.
\subsection{Math Mid-Sentence}
If you're writing a wordy section and you don't necessarily want to break it, the \$ sign is what you want to use. Anything sandwiched in the \$ sign will pop in math format (wooooow). You could talk about $E = mc^2$ and then casually continue your sentence like nothing ever happened.
You'll notice here that for exponents, when you're working with the math format, you can use the carrot symbol and not have to deal with the superscript format. Subscripts follow the underscore format, like $v_0$. Fractions can be written with $\frac{numerator}{denominator}$. Signify that a value is a vector using $\vec{p}$. In the next examples, I'll build on these and combine multiple elements so you can get a hang of writing equations quickly.
\subsection{Isolated Equations and Equations with Multiple Lines}
When you really want to emphasize an equation and have it on it's own line, you can use this method here:
\begin{equation}
Q = T^3 + Y
\end{equation}
If you're curious, that's the equation for electric
charge as the linear combination of the $SU(2)_L$ $T^3$ component (the analog of the $S_z$ component of spin) and the $U(1)_Y$ hypercharge.
Now, sometimes your equations have multiple lines. It's nice to show multiple lines especially when you're deriving something or making a relation. If you want to show that off, I suggest this format:
\begin{align}
mC_V\delta T &= h_{evap} \delta m
\\
\frac{\delta m}{m} &= \frac{C_V}{h_{evap}}\delta T
\\
\int{\frac{dm}{m}} &= \int{\frac{C_V(T)}{h_{evap}}dT}
\end{align}
Or a format like this:
\begin{align}
\vec{p_\mu} &= \vec{p}_\mu^{ \, V} + \vec{p}_\mu^{ \, I}
\\
&= (E_V, \ \vec{p}_V) + (E_I, \ \vec{p}_I)
\\
&= (E_V + E_I, \vec{0})_{RF} \label{eq:example}
\end{align}
Wherever you put the \&= sign in your code is going to be where your equation will line up.
You probably noticed the label in the code next to equation~\ref{eq:example}. If you put a label like this next to an equation, you can refer to it later using the format I used in the code of this paragraph.
\subsection{Greek Letters}
I'm going to just use an itemized list here so you can quickly copy and past Greek letter instead of looking them up every ten seconds on Google. I'll show you another itemized list example in the next section.
\begin{multicols}{4}
\begin{itemize}
\item $\alpha$, $A$
\item $\beta$, $B$
\item $\gamma$, $\Gamma$
\item $\delta$, $\Delta$
\item $\epsilon$, $E$
\item $\zeta$, $Z$
\item $\eta$, $E$
\item $\theta$, $\Theta$
\item $\iota$, $I$
\item $\kappa$, $K$
\item $\lambda$, $\Lambda$
\item $\mu$, $M$
\item $\nu$, $N$
\item $\pi$, $\Pi$
\item $\rho$, $R$
\item $\sigma$, $\Sigma$
\item $\tau$, $T$
\item $\upsilon$, $\Upsilon$
\item $\phi$, $\Phi$
\item $\chi$, $X$
\item $\psi$, $\Psi$
\item $\omega$, $\Omega$
\end{itemize}
\end{multicols}
\section{Images and Other Fun Stuff}
From here on out, it's going to be much more straightforward for me to type out examples rather than show you step-by-step how to reproduce things. For images, you'll note that you need to download the .png file into the overleaf document in order to use it. The Table format may be a bit tricky, but you can tweak it and and adjust it in order to see how it works.
The general rule of thumb is that at the end of each item, you'll often find a label. You can refer to figures by using their labels in the "ref" format, which I'll show you in a sentence after each example.
\subsection{Images}
\begin{figure}[h!]
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=0.4\linewidth]{gluino.pdf}
\caption{Feynman diagram of gluino decay.\label{fig:diag}}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
We can refer to figure~\ref{fig:diag} using this format. You can adjust the caption to say whatever you want. Now, if you want to include multiple images like in figure~\ref{fig:beta} this is the format you'll need:
\begin{figure}[h]
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=0.45\linewidth]{c_betaa.png}
\includegraphics[width=0.45\linewidth]{c_betarecoa.png}
\caption{Velocity distribution normalized to the speed-of-light of the long-lived gluino ($m_{\tilde{g}}=700$\,GeV) from the generator (left) and the reconstruction (right).\label{fig:beta}}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\subsection{Lists}
You can make many kinds of lists in LaTeX. A bullet point list:
\begin{itemize}
\item that
\item looks
\item like
\item this
\end{itemize}
\noindent
Or maybe you'd rather a numbered list:
\begin{enumerate}
\item do
\item you
\item prefer
\item this?
\end{enumerate}
I've included the multicol package in this setup, so you can make a list with as many columns as you'd like. All you have to do is have a begin and end command surrounding whatever list you're working with, specify the number of columns, and you're good to go!
\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{itemize}
\item how much wood
\item can a woodchuck chuck
\item if a woodchuck
\item could chuck
\item wood?
\item actually seriously
\item I'd like to know
\item I'm quite curious
\item What do woodchucks
\item Even look like?
\end{itemize}
\end{multicols}
\subsection{Tables}
Tables can be quite ugly, but I'll give you two examples, tables~\ref{tab:gaugesparticles} and~\ref{tab:sparticles}, both drawn from G. L. Kane's Perspectives on Supersymmetry.
\begin{table}[h]
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|} \hline
Particles & spin-1/2 & spin-1 & $SU(3)_C$, $SU(2)_L$, $U(1)_Y$ \\ \hline \hline
gluino, gluon & $\tilde{g}$ & $g$ & $(\mathbf{8}, \mathbf{1}, 0)$ \rule{0pt}{3ex} \\[1ex] \hline
winos, W bosons & $\tilde{W}^\pm \ \tilde{W}^0$ & $W^\pm \ W^0$ & $(\mathbf{1}, \mathbf{3}, 0)$ \rule{0pt}{3ex} \\[1ex] \hline
bino, B boson & $\tilde{B}^0$ & $B^0$ & $(\mathbf{1}, \mathbf{1}, 0)$ \rule{0pt}{3ex} \\[1ex] \hline
\end{tabular}
\caption{More Particles and Quantum Numbers of the (minimal) Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model~\cite{1998pesu}.\label{tab:gaugesparticles}}
\end{center}
\end{table}
\begin{table}[h]
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|c|} \hline
\multicolumn{2}{|c|}{Particles} & spin-0 & spin-1/2 & $SU(3)_C$, $SU(2)_L$, $U(1)_Y$ \\ \hline \hline
squarks, quarks & $Q$ & $(\tilde{u}_L \ \tilde{d}_L)$ & $(u_L \ d_L)$ & $(\mathbf{3}, \mathbf{2}, \frac{1}{6})$ \rule{0pt}{3ex} \\[1ex]
($\times$3 families) & $\bar{u}$ & $\tilde{u}^*_R$ & $\bar{u}_R$ & $(\mathbf{\bar{3}},\mathbf{1}, -\frac{2}{3})$ \rule{0pt}{3ex} \\[1ex]
& $\bar{d}$ & $\tilde{d}^*_R$ & $\bar{d}_R$ & $(\mathbf{\bar{3}},\mathbf{1}, \frac{1}{3})$ \rule{0pt}{3ex} \\[1ex] \hline
sleptons, leptons & $L$ & $(\tilde{\nu} \ \tilde{e}_L)$ & $(\nu \ e_L)$ & $(\mathbf{1}, \mathbf{2}, -\frac{1}{2})$ \rule{0pt}{3ex} \\[1ex]
($\times$3 families) & $\bar{e}$ & $\tilde{e}^*_R$ & $\bar{e}_R$ & $(\mathbf{1}, \mathbf{1}, 1)$ \rule{0pt}{3ex} \\[1ex] \hline
Higgs, higgsinos & $H_u$ & $(H_u \ H_u)$ & $(\tilde{H}_u \ \tilde{H}_u)$ & $(\mathbf{1}, \mathbf{2}, +\frac{1}{2})$ \rule{0pt}{3ex} \\[1ex]
& $H_d$ & $(H_d \ H_d)$ & $(\tilde{H}_d \ \tilde{H}_u)$ & $(\mathbf{1}, \mathbf{2}, -\frac{1}{2})$ \rule{0pt}{3ex} \\[1ex] \hline
\end{tabular}
\caption{Particles and Quantum Numbers of the (minimal) Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model~\cite{1998pesu}.\label{tab:sparticles}}
\end{center}
\end{table}
Table~\ref{tab:sparticles} bit more of a complicated table (unfortunately it only showed up on the next page. Honestly of course it did). The code for these tables look absolutely awful, but with some fiddling around with the code, I hope you can see how it works. It looks much much more daunting than it actually is.
\section{Conclusion}
Working with LaTeX can be messy and honestly I don't understand all of it either. Sometimes you really have to fiddle around with formatting stuff until it finally does what you want it to do. I haven't covered everything and you'll definitely have to do a lot of Google-ing along the way, but I hope you find at least some of the things I've listed here helpful. Always reach out to me with any questions at all! Best of luck, I know you're going to knock your JP out of the park.
\clearpage
\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{References/Acknowledgements}
%\bibliographystyle{aasjournal}
%\bibliography{main}
\begin{thebibliography}{}
\end{thebibliography}
\newpage
\section*{Acknowledgements}
This Junior Paper template is largely based off of one created by Nicole Ozdowski (Class of 2019) and Professor Christopher G. Tully in the Department of Physics.
\end{document}